DRDO's Areas of Interest

General areas of Interest to DRDO as per MoU between DRDO and University of Pune.

Areas of Interest of NMRL, Ambernath:

a) Characterization of materials by advanced techniques such as: XRD, XRF, ESCA, Electron Microscopy, EPMA, EDAX, NMR etc. This will involve materials such as conducting polymers, both electronics and electrolytic special steels, electro ceramics as well as biomaterials.

b) Characterization of high temperature composites and structural polymers for mechanical properties.

c) Development of conducting polymers for diverse application.

d) Synthesis of high luminescent fire retardant paint.

e) Studies on catalyst for electrochemical applications.

f) Biotechnology approach for environmental regards.

g) Measurement of explosively coated microfilm surface properties of various substrates.

h) Study on laser initiation of explosives.

Areas of Interest of VRDE, Ahmednagar:

a) Automotive Engineering:

1) Determination of transfer function for vehicle suspension system.

2) Study of understeering /oversteering of vehicles.

3) Mathematical model for pave track, corrugated track, cross-country track etc.

4) Adiabatic engine.

b) Workshop Technology:

1) Study on machinability of armour and special alloy.

2) Study on application of advanced cutting tools and their applications.

3) Optimization of process parameters in welding of armour and dissimilar materials by various welding techniques.

c) Automotive systems/sub systems:

1) Optimization of suspension system for multi axled vehicles from cross-country.

2) Design and development of hydro-pneumatic suspension system.

d) Vehicular Electronics :

1) Design and development of electronically controlled multi wheel steering system for multi axled vehicles.

2) Electronic engine management of IC engine.

3) Engine RPM indicator for diesel & petrol vehicle.

4) Wheel torque sensor and indicator.

5) Steering response lag sensor & indicator.

6) Ground profile measurement system.

7) Vehicle computer.

8) Down hill brake test equipment.

9) Driving cycle measuring instrument.

10) Pq Generator.

e) Miscellaneous :

1) Air conditioning system to meet high vibration level of cross-country tracked combat vehicle.

2) Estimation road loads experienced by tracked combat vehicle during severe cross-country operation.

3) Design of a top mounting plate with large hole in centre of hull structure of a tracked combat vehicle subjected to impulse loading due to firing of main weapon.

4) Development of micro machined acceleration sensor.

5) Development of cargo ammunition.

6) Development of sensor system for off- route Anti- Tank Mine.

7) Development of transmitter and receiver system for remote activation and reactivation of mine packaging material.

8) Development of BNCP = tetraammine - cis - bis (5-nitro-2h-tetrazolate-n2) cobalt + (3) Perchlorate.

9) Laser welding technology.

10) Development of smart seismic sensor.

11) Plasma characterization and energy analysis.

12) Development of PVDF film material for high energy storage density capacitor

13) Development of solid state switching system for pulsed power source.

14) Intermediate ballistics of slowly spinning rocket.

15) Measurement / Estimation of-

a) Wind profile up to a height of 3 Km,

b) atmospheric pressure and

c) by means of a handy and compact (preferably digitized) instrument.

16) Insulator for high temp application.

17) Development of wear resistant tribocoatings for defence application.

18) Relativity studies of electronic control systems.

19) Electromagnetic mini aircraft launcher.

20) Inflatable floats in kevlar reinforced neoprene sheets.

21) Design of an amphibious wheeled vehicle.

22) Measurement of torsional vibration of an engine shafts through laser doppler velocimetry.

23) Computational aerodynamic for gun fired projectiles.

24) Measurement of stresses in the track link of a tracked vehicle.

25) Selective oxidation of amino to nitro groups of selected substrates using novel catalytic material.

26) To establish a spectroscopic method of analysis for determination of microstructure of hydroxy terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) and thermoplastic-elastomers.

27) Modelling : structure & property of high energy materials.

28) Effect of atmospheric humidity on the condensation of combustion products of a typical composite propellant.

29) Solid rocket propellants.

Areas suggested by Army Research Board

1) Advanced polymers : thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) and energetic binder systems.

2) Advanced propellants with specific impulse > 260 secs.

3) Solid rocket remjets to enhance the range of artillery guns and base bleed units.

4) Liquid propellants.

5) Low vulnerability ammunitions (LOVA) / Low vulnerability explosives.

6) Plastic bounded explosives (PBX).

7) Explosive formed penetrators (EFP).

8) Smart and intelligent munitions.

9) Laser and fibre optic systems.

10) Self propelled guns.

11)Multiple launch rocket systems.

12) Composites and special materials.

13) Light metals and alloys.

14) Ejection systems.

15) Miniaturised fuses.

16) Explosive reactive armour (ERA) / Active armour.

17) Telemetry.


19)Modelling and software development for armaments.

20)Designer Explosives- Theoretical, Experimental and Application aspects.

21)High energy binders and plasticizers for propellants and explosives.

22)High energy Eco-friendly oxidizers.

23)New detection technologies for explosives.

24)Modeling, theoretical studies and software development for explosives.

25)Propellants and pyrotechniques.

26) Data- base creation for propellants and development for explosives on performance parameters.

27)Hypergolic liquid propellants to replace existing propellants.

28)Hybrid propellants possessing high burning rates and high combustion efficiency.

29) Liquid gun propellants.

30) Eco-friendly methods for the disposal of time barred explosives, propellants and


31) Any other areas of direct application to defence.

Indian Navy has accepted advanced torpedoes designed by DRDO

Indian Navy has accepted advanced torpedoes designed by DRDO

COIMBATORE: The advanced experimental torpedo designed by Defence Research and Development Organsiation (DRDO) has been accepted by the Navy.

Its production has been taken up by Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL) of Hyderabad, A. Sivathanu Pillai, Chief Controller of DRDO and Chief Executive Officer and Managing Director of BrahMos Aerospace said here on Thursday.

Dr. Pillai told reporters that the advanced light weight torpedo would be used as an underwater weapon by the Navy.


With this breakthrough the DRDO was reaching a stage of self-reliance in under water applications. It was now looking at heavy weight torpedoes, Dr. Pillai said.

“Work on unmanned vehicles in underwater is under way and is in the prototype stages at the Naval Science and Technology Laboratory at Vishakhapatnam. The vehicle will initially do surveillance work. Later it might be considered for civilian uses too,” he added.

He said most of the naval materials had been indigenised.

DRDO was also in the process of developing a fuel cell that would have tremendous civilian applications.

It could be considered as an alternative to propel cars, he said.

DRDO August 2007 Newsletter-Techfocus Special on Dhanush

DRDO August 2007 Newsletter-Techfocus Special on Dhanush


Missiles are a must for any modern military outfit. They act as a force multiplier as is evident from the recently fought wars in the South Asia and the Gulf. Most of the missiles technologies come under the purview of sanctions imposed by the developed countries.

To provide thrust and to promote self-reliance in the areas of missile systems, an Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme was launched by the DRDO in 1983 to develop a family of strategic and tactical guided missiles.

Since then DRDO has achieved a unique degree of success leading to the development of a number of missile systems like Prithvi (a short-range ballistic missile), Agni (medium-range missile), Akash and Trishul (short-range surface-to-air missiles), and Nag (third-generation antitank guided missile). Prithvi has now been inducted into the Services, while the serial production of Agni has started.


IGMDP programme sanctioned in 1983 provided for a major thrust in the design and development of indigenous technologies and capabilities in the field of missiles. It was both a learning curve and a challenge.

The technologies, expertise and capabilities built have provided a platform enabling the country to take a quantum leap into development of futuristic world-class missiles. Agni and its variants have been successfully inducted and handed over to the Army. Today Prithvi and its variants find a place of pride in the inventory of Indian Army, Indian Air Force, and Indian Navy.

Project Dhanush, a Naval variant of Prithvi missile on ship, and its deployment from a moving platform, was a major technological challenge both in terms of hardware and software. It enabled demonstration of the indigenous capability for the stabilisation of the missile launcher and first vertical launch of Prithvi variant missile from an OPV class of ship.

Successful enhancement of range, development of GPS INS-based close-loop guidance system and conduct of ‘Acceptance Test Firing’ independently by the naval teams have boosted the users confidence in the indigenous systems/technologies.

Successful trials of the BrahMos missile, both naval and land version, and their induction into Indian Navy and Indian Army has been another landmark in the development and demonstration of the indigenous capability.

The successes achieved in these fields are attributable to the synergy developed between the DRDO, Services, and academic institutions; PSUs like Bharat Dynamics Limited, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited; and private industry. {PPP-Public-Private Partnership}

Today the country has a demonstrated capability for design, development and manufacture of all types of missiles.

I am glad to note that DESIDOC is bringing out a Special Issue of Technology Focus to highlight the success achieved by Project Dhanush. This should motivate one and all to come together, overcome the technological challenges and reduce the dependence on imported systems/technologies.
Dr VK Saraswat
Distinguished Scientist &
Chief Controller R&D (MSS)

After successfully developing these missiles, DRDO has also developed indigenously Dhanush missile (a naval variant of Prithvi) and a supersonic
cruise missile, BrahMos, in collaboration with Russian entity Mashinostroyeniye.Both the missiles are ready for induction into the Services after successful trials at sea. This issue of Technology Focus is highlighting the salient features and achievements of Project Dhanush.

Project Dhanush was sanctioned by the Indian Navy to integrate and demonstrate the feasibility of launching variant of Prithvi from a ship.

The translation from the technology demonstrator to weaponisation configuration , and induction of the Dhanush weapon system has been completed with the successful 'Acceptance Test Firing' conducted by the user, and after achieving all the planned mission objectives.

The salient features and achievements of Project Dhanush required development and realiasation of a number of systems. Some of these are given below:

Realisation of Ship-based Systems

Following ship-based systems have been developed:

Launcher Stabilisation System (LSS) including electronics and hydraulics for stabilisation of a five-ton weight class Prithvi missile within 90±1” , in disturbance of ±10” of roll, and ±5” in pitch (sea state 4) on board ship, and deployment of a vertically stabilised Prithvi variant from ship.

Ship Motion Simulator with capability to generate roll of ±30 and pitch of ±15 for testing/evaluation of the LSS on shore. This was subsequently upgraded and converted into a LSS for the second ship.

Transporter Erector Trolley (TET) for transfer of Prithvi variant from the safe storage (SS) container and its integration on the LSS.

Object Transfer Trolley for handling of SS container (14 ton with the missile) on board the ship.

SS Container for safe storage of the Dhanush during transportation to and fro from the depot and for stowing on board ship.

Integrated Electronics System consisting of
*Power supply and distribution units to ensure availability of clean and regulated power supply at all the times for all the elements of the Dhanush weapon system.
*State-of-the-art Dhanush fire control system based on real-time operating virtual machine environment (VME)-based open architecture system for the auto launch of Dhanush with provision for future upgradation.
*Object handling system for semi-automatic, safe and fast integration of the Dhanush with the LSS.
*LSS controller for stabilisation of the LSS to the required accuracy in sea state 4 conditions. This has enabled deployment of the Dhanush missile in sea state up to 3.

Modification of the Ships
Naval ships have been modified for integration of the Dhanush weapon system and safe operation of the ship-based systems (weight approximately 40 ton).

Following design, development and modification in the software were carried out for:-

Transfer alignment based on Kalman filter technique for alignment of inertial measurement unit (IMU) with the master inertial navigation system (INS) SIGMA 40 to define the azimuth for the missile trajectory and control and guidance.

Global positioning system (GPS)-INS fused navigation to reduce the cross-range error/cross-range error probability (CEP) at the impact point. The technology has completely eliminated the proportional dependence of CEP to range.

Launch point prediction software for prediction of the launch point on a moving platform.

Existing Cacoon software has been modified to enable deployment of missiles from any latitude and longitude.

Command control software to prevent unauthorised launch.

Integration of thrust vector control (TVC) backup in the analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) phase to augment the control effectiveness for extended range missiles based on 'dynamic sharing logic'.

Mission software.

Modification of the Airframe Sections

Modification of the airframe sections has been done to increase the range of Dhanush beyond 250 km by increasing the tank length and effective surface area of the control surfaces, and by augmenting and strengthening the control scheme/algorithm using the latest control techniques.

Secure C3 Network
A command, control, communication network has been implemented for reliable, assured and safe communication among all authorities.

Ground Systems
Fourteen types of ground systems have been realised for utilisation during preparation of Dhanush missile at depot. These include three special ground systems—MOSAIC D, missile carrier vehicle, and 40 T crane—especially developed for Dhanush missile system.

Composite Helo Deck
With the integration of the Dhanush weapon system, the flexibility of the Dhanush-capable ship to operate the helicopters was compromised. To restore this capability, DRDO took on the task of realising and integrating a helo deck made from lightweight composite materials.

DRDO has now developed a helo deck made of vinyl ester and E glass fabric on board such ships. With this, the Naval Commanders have the flexibility to operate the Dhanush class off-shore patrol vessles (OPV) in either Dhanush or helo role.

The successful translation of the technology demonstrator project to the final goal of weaponisation demonstrates the unique synergy created between the Indian Navy, DRDO, PSUs (BDL, HAL, etc.), and private industries (M/s L&T Mumbai, SEC Industries Private Ltd., VEM Technologies, etc.) to realise the mission objective for design, development and induction of indigenous technologies for the Defence forces.

Dhanush weapon system has continuously evolved with technology upgrades during the translation from technology demon-strator to the inducted weapon system held in the inventory of the users.

The range of the Dhanush has been increased beyond 250 km, the Flight Control System has been changed/upgraded from 80286 MB II technology to open architecture VME-based real-time operating system, and user's feedback and inputs have been incorporated to simplify the ship-based operations in the area of man-machine interface and graphic user interface.

The following technologies have been realised/developed in-house during the execution of this project:
a. Realisation of extended-range class of ship-launched Dhanush missile.
b. Stabilisation system for stabilisation of missiles/radar/ guns/rockets weighing up to 5 ton.
c. Vx works-based VME operating system for Fire Control Systems of missiles/guns/rockets.
d. Linear motion rail technology for safe and reliable operations and handling of very heavy systems/objects in the presence of constant and unpredictable disturbances (roll and pitch motions).
e. Secure command control communication network.

Portable Carbogen Breathing Apparatus For Protection Against Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

Exposure to noise is well known to cause damage to the auditory system.Today, noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major and increasing problem in the industrialised countries, stemming both from the workplace and from leisure activities. The degree of hearing impairment depends on the intensity of the noise and the duration of exposure.

Experiments to study the mechanism of action of noise have established that exposure to noise initially causes temporary loss of hearing sensitivity, commonly known as temporary threshold shift (TTS).

If this loss is not recovered during rest pauses, it slowly turns into permanent hearing impairment referred to as noise-induced permanent threshold shift (NIPTS). Intense acoustic stimulation has been reported to produce discernible change in blood supply and oxygen tension of hair cells.

Thus, TTS produced by exposure to noise may be due to increased oxygen
consumption by hair cells coupled with depletion of blood supply caused due to vasoconstriction.

Therefore, any system that could counteract these effects is considered suitable to mitigate the degree of hearing loss. Carbogen, a gas mixture of 95 per cent Oxygen and 5 per cent Carbon dioxide, is a well-known powerful vasodilator of the cerebral capillary beds.

Its potential has been utilised by DRDO to counteract the vasoconstrictive effect of noise. During the laboratory studies, it was observed that administration of Carbogen even for short duration of 5 min before and after exposure to occupational noise provided dual benefit by reducing the magnitude of TTS development and accelerating the recovery process for normalisation of hearing status.

The equipment used earlier to administer Carbogen was bulky and cumbersome to handle and use. DRDO has designed a mobile Carbogen Breathing Assembly to deliver Carbogen for a period of 5 min before and after exposure to occupational noise in order to minimise and mitigate the adverse effects of noise on the auditory system of a human being.

The assembly is trolley-mounted for easy manoeuverability and comprises a gas cylinder, regulator, and humidifier and breathing masks in an aesthetically appealing module.

This mobile apparatus provides facilities for normal breathing in sitting and standing positions. The system finds application as a protective device for the conservation of hearing in workers occupationally exposed to intense noise for prolonged period such as the engine room of ships, naval dockyards, Indian Air Force, Ordinance Factories, traffic police personnel, and industries, etc.

The integrated system is portable, compact, and simple to use. The functional aspects of the prototype has been successfully evaluated in the laboratory set up as well as at Defence establishments (Indian Navy, Air Force and Army Workshops) where the personnel have to operate in an intense noise environment.

The system has been hailed as being effective, safe and user-friendly and one that supports the application of Carbogen as an effective prophylactic against NIHL.

The basic design of the system incorporates the carbogen cylinder coupled with flow control valve and timer. A nebuliser, housed in the body of the equipment, humidifies the gas before inspiration.

The system design has catered for reduced floor space requirement, weight and cost considerations. Design for fabrication of commercial prototypes of Carbogen Delivery System has been awarded to two vendors (M/s Vijay Sabre Safety Ltd, Mumbai, and M/s S.B. Equipment, New Delhi, and are likely to be available in the market soon.

A multi-user Kiosk workstation has also been developed to facilitate the administration of Carbogen to 10 individuals at a time.

Following the successful trials conducted by the Indian Navy on the efficacy of breathing Carbogen in ameliorating NIHL, the Indian Navy has communicated its desire to acquire 12 Carbogen breathing assemblies towards the first phase of induction in the Navy. DGAFMS has approved the installment of the system in nine medical units under different Commands.

Salient Features
*A strudy, user-friendly and ergonomically designed system.
*Easy-to-operate system that does not require the use of a skilled operator.
*Switch to start/stop the flow of Carbogen gas with light indicators for indicating the start and flow of the gas along with a timer for indicating the termination of 5 min of Carbogen inhalation.
*Adjustment for control of pressure and flow of Carbogen gas @ 10 liters per minute.
*Dual-stage non-corrosive pressure regulator to facilitate flow of Carbogen gas with ease.
*Cover on the outer body of the apparatus that can be opened and closed allow for the adjustment of Carbogen flow and pressure control.
*Front opening of the apparatus for easy replacement and egress of the cylinder.
*A humidifier/nebuliser for humidifying the gas before inhalation to prevent dryness of air passage and complications arising thereof.
*Good fit , double valve silicon breathing mask to prevent wastage of gas and comfortable to wear and take off.
*Provision of a spanner for adjusting the valve head for pressure control.

Physical Characteristics
*The height of the trolley is 1145 mm approximately.
*The total weight of the apparatus with the cylinder is 37 kg approximately (18 kg cylinder wt).
*The width of the trolley without the handle is 300 mm approximately.
*The width of the trolley with handle is 450 mm approximately.

*Attachments to fix start/stop valve and placing of nebuliser.
*Wheels for transportation.
*Handle for easy manoeuvrability.

*Easy accessibility of controls and mask/tube outlet to user.
*Push trolley with the placement of the switch for starting the gas supply at an accessible range. The mask outlet of the gas tube is also placed at the accessible range of the user.

Controls, Displays, and Warnings
*Gas output pressure is controlled by the bull-nose valve top spindle rotation. The control can be monitored in the gas pressure meter in suitable units (bars, kg/cm ). After the gas pressure has been set, the knob on the bull-nose valve can adjust the flow. The flow can be monitored with a float in the flow meter in liters per minute.

The user can start and stop the gas supply for his installment using a shut off valve. A ball-type shut off valve has been provided for start/stop the installment of 5 min.

The electronic timer (red and green LED displays for indication of the start and continuation of gas flow, respectively) visible to the user while breathing.
Buzzing from the electronic timer attached to the start/stop valve indicates the end of 5 min duration. The sound pressure level of the buzzer is 60 dB 'A' at the ear of the user in the apparatus's closed condition while it is 65 dB 'A' in equipment's open condition, with predominant frequency at 4 kHz.

Supply System
CO2 and O2 : 5 per cent and 95 per cent, respectively in cylinder.

Potential Applications
Services: Firing ranges, engine room of ships, and for ground crew of the Air Force.

Civil: Industry, machine rooms, airports and traffic police.

Medical/therapeutic applications: Management of sudden sensorineural hearing loss, as adjuvant to radiation therapy in cancer, in alcohol withdrawl, and cigarette smokers.

Unmanned underwater vehicles being developed by DRDO

Unmanned underwater vehicles being developed by DRDO

Coimbatore, PTI:

The Naval Science Laboratory at Visakhapatnam has developed the technology and is in the process of making prototype of 'unmanned underwater vehicle',(UUV), Dr A Sivathunu Pillai, Chief Controller of Research and Development, DRDO, said.

The Naval Science Laboratory at Visakhapatnam is developing 'unmanned underwater vehicles,' (UUV) for carrying out surveillance in the sea, a top DRDO official said today.

With India moving fast to become self-reliant in underwater technology," the laboratory has developed the technology and is in the process of making prototype of UUV," Dr A Sivathunu Pillai, Chief Controller of Research and Development, DRDO, told reporters here.

The vehicles would be of much use for the Indian Navy for surveillance under the sea and also to trace and send signals about the presence of any submarine, ship and other objects deployed by the enemy, Pillai said.

Similarly, the Indian Navy has accepted the newly developed Advanced Experimental Torpedo 'TAL,' to hit targets under the sea, Pillai said, adding Hyderabad-based Bharat Dynamics Ltd, would commence its production soon.

TAL is capable of locating the underwater target with its homing device, hit and destroy it, he said. With DRDO already delivering Advanced Underwater Mines to the Navy, India is reaching a stage of self-reliance in underwater technology, Pillai said.

DRDO's FRL improves Indian army's life at Siachen

DRDO's FRL improves army life at Siachen

Wednesday, August 22, 2007 (Leh)

The guns may have fallen silent on Siachen, the world's highest battlefield, in the past four years but the icy weather and inaccessible location remains a constant enemy and an enduring challenge for the Indian army.

But thanks to a combined effort of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and the army, there is a constant effort to improve the soldiers' life in high altitude areas.

Located at Leh, the DRDO's field research laboratory has devised ways to make life comfortable for soldiers' deployed in these difficult conditions.

One of the oldest labs in the country, the Field Research Laboratory has developed techniques that allow a variety of non-indigenous crops to grow in the barren landscape of Ladakh.

It allows soldiers to get fresh vegetables locally instead of depending on supplies from the plains of Punjab. It also helps the local economy.

''We first experiment new techniques on our farms and then pass the technique onto the local farmers. This has helped us to reduce the length of the supply chain,'' said Dr Zaman, Director, FRL, Leh.

But agriculture is not the only field that the FRL deals in. After the Kargil War, it found the mules were not able to withstand the harsh weather. So now it has developed a new breed.

The FRL also plays a major part in Operation Clean and Green Siachen.

Synergy between the FRL and the army deployed in Ladakh has ensured that there is a constant improvement in the life of the soldiers deployed in these adverse conditions.

Indian Army to induct laser weapons made by DRDO

Indian Army to induct laser weapons made by DRDO

August 17, 2007 12:19 IST

Soldiers engaged in counter-insurgency operations in Jammu and Kashmir and the north-east will soon have a new weapon to help them take on terrorists portable non-lethal laser dazzlers that can stun and blind their opponents.

"Two versions of the portable non-lethal dazzlers, including a hand-held laser dazzler, are set to be inducted into the Indian armed forces for use in counter-insurgency operations. This will make the 21st century soldier a technology-driven jawan," a top defence source told PTI.

The laser dazzlers, which can be mounted on existing weapons used by the soldiers, were tested in Kashmir in October 2006 and will be inducted into the army possibly by 2008, sources said.

They could be used against terrorists operating in the hinterland of Kashmir and against those infiltrating into the state across the Line of Control.

The Defence Research and Development Organisation's Laser Science and Technology Centre in Delhi has developed two variants of the PNLD suitable for counter-insurgency operations.

The hand-held and weapon-mounted versions of the PNLD have a maximum range of 50 meters and 500 meters respectively, the sources said.

Both variants are completely non-lethal directed-energy weapons employing intense visible light and produce randomly a flickering green laser output that is sufficient to cause temporary blindness or disorientation.

The dazzlers also have an in-built safety interlock to prevent misuse and the weapons do not cause permanent blindness, the sources said.

The dazzlers also have an integrated low power red laser beam for aiming in twilight and dark conditions.

The weapon-mounted dazzler has an integrate daylight sight too.

After trials of the dazzlers in the north-east and Kashmir, a memorandum of understanding was signed for manufacturing the systems for the army, the sources said.

Under the MoU signed by the Defence Research Development Organisation with SDS Electronics Pvt Ltd of Panchkula, the transfer of technology for the two versions of the PNLD was completed in November 2006, the sources said.

The laser dazzlers use "diode pumped solid state" lasers with a wavelength of 532 nm and weigh 850 g.

On 18 May 2006, the US military announced it would issue dazzling lasers designed to be attached to M-4 rifles to troops in Iraq.

This weapon is intended to provide a non-lethal way to stop drivers who fail to stop at checkpoints manned by US soldiers.

However, this proposal attracted criticism from human rights groups, who said even these weapons can cause permanent damage.

The US forces also used the Saber 203 dazzlers in Somalia in 1995 during Operation United Shield.

BEL to export DRDO's anti-infiltration radar to Indonesia

BEL to export DRDO's anti-infiltration radar to Indonesia

5 Aug, 2007, 1350 hrs IST, PTI

NEW DELHI: Striving for long to break into the lucrative arms export market, India has finally managed to get a toehold by bagging an order for sale of short-range battle field surveillance radar to Indonesia.

The sale order is eventful as the Indian company, which won the order, was in strong competition with some of the world's leading radar and electronic warfare equipment manufacturers like American Raytheon and European consortium Thales.

The contract for the sale of man-portable battery- powered surveillance and acquisition radar has been won by public sector blue chip company Bharat Electronic Limited (BEL) for which it will be a maiden test in export.

The company recently won the coveted 'Navaratna' title and in the last fiscal reported a turn over of Rs 4,240 crore logging a profit of Rs 724.55 crore.

Though the successive NDA and UPA governments have year in and year out set ambitious arms export targets, these have repeatedly fallen short of the mark. In 2003-04, the NDA government had set up a weapon export target of a modest Rs 1,000 crore and even that was never reached.

And the reasons appear not too hard to locate as so far Indian arms companies, all of which are state-owned, have only been allowed to peddle old arms.

The companies were exporting only weapons systems which were on the verge of being phased out, like old Vijayanta tanks, light artillery guns and other systems, by the country's armed forces. "This is for the first time that India has managed to sell a world class product with superior features compared to similar products available from international manufacturers," a top BEL officer said.

The radars being sold are capable of detecting moving targets like foot-patrols, army and civil vehicles, tanks and artillery pieces. "These are ideal for checking illegal incursion on borders of all terrain".

BEL officials were not forthcoming on the number of radar systems being sold. But Defence Ministry sources said the initial order could be anything up to 100 systems. BEL has recently set up an extensive facility for manufacture of such radars as already it has a big contract for such systems from the Indian Army.

The man-packed battle field surveillance radar indigenously developed by DRDO are being used by army successfully in detecting and confronting infiltration across the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir in tandem with sensors and hand-held thermals imported from Israel.

"Supplies to India Army began in March 2005," the BEL official said adding the mobile radars can be carried in three man-packs for deployment to any location.

Radars are light weight, man-portable and can be quickly deployed. They can operate 24-hours a day under all weather conditions, officials said. Radars have low probability of interception, can track 50 targets at the same time, can also classify targets, based on audio doppler signature and have the provisions to network with other radar systems for wider area coverage.

The new systems, a force multiplier for security forces in their hunt for terrorists in tough tarrain, have the capability of picking up armed groups five km away and moving vehicles from a distance of eight km.

"There is a sharp demand for these systems in anti-infiltration operations," an army official said adding after Jammu and Kashmir the radar would be needed to be deployed on Indo-Bangladesh border in the Northeast.

"These can also be ideally used against naxalities," the official said.

US expresses interest in India’s DRDO made Mine-Protected Vehicle Aditya

US expresses interest in India’s DRDO made Mine-Protected Vehicle Aditya

New Delhi, Aug 02: The US defence department has evinced keen interest in an indigenous mine-protected vehicle that the Army is set to induct for anti-insurgency operations in Jammu and Kashmir.

The ‘Aditya’ vehicle which was developed by DRDO and will be inducted by the Army by November to provide increased protection to troops engaged in counter-terrorism operations.

The Army has projected a requirement for 1,400 such vehicles and given the green signal to induct 300.

Official sources said the US authorities had expressed interest in the vehicle mainly due to its ability to withstand an explosion of up to 10 tonnes of TNT, far beyond the capability of any similar vehicle.

But the Americans, who are eyeing these specialised vehicles apparently to cope with increased car bomb attacks in Iraq, will have to wait.

B P Bapu, joint general manager of the ordnance factory in Medak that produces the Aditya, said the Army had ordered a large number of vehicles and the unit could not aspire for any export orders now.

Bapu said the mine-protected vehicle was displayed during Army Chief Gen J J Singh`s recent visit to the central Indian garrison town of Mhow.

DRDO Develops Stealthy Under Water Mines for Indian Navy

DRDO Develops Stealthy Under Water Mines for Indian Navy

The Naval Scientific Technological Laboratory (NSTL) here, a wing of Defence Research Development Organisation, has developed a deadly device called underwater mine which will do the job.

Evolved by indigenous technology at the NSTL, the underwater mine will join the Indian arsenal shortly to bolster Indian Navy's weapon shop.

Testing and rating of the device has been completed successfully and the weapon and the project will be handed over to the Indian Navy.

The device which will be planted underwater, can destroy enemy objects including sub-marines, war ships and even small boats which may come within a particular radius of the location of the device.

The NSTL has completed the requisite administrative formalities before the device is released officially. NSTL which has planned to hand over underwater mine in the first week of July put it off due to some technical reasons.

A senior official told this website's newspaper that their project has been completed successfully but declined to divulge the cost of the project. Normally, the cost of research and development of this type of weapons is no constraint, but NSTL executed the project within the stipulated budget, the official revealed.

This is the first of its kind device. It will add a feather to Indian Navy�s cap, particularly in view of future challenges it might encounter, a senior scientist claimed with pride.

With regard to the success of the underwater mine venture, the naval sources expressed their delight and said it would be a real push to the Indian Navy: We are also eagerly waiting for the day to induct the device into the Navy's arsenal.

DRDO making 1000km subsonic cruise missile Nirbhay

DRDO making 1000km subsonic cruise missile Nirbhay

New Delhi, July 19: Indian defence scientists have taken up a new cruise missile development programme. The missile named Nirbhay (The Fearless) is in the same class as the US’s Tomahawk and will have a range that is 300km longer than Pakistan’s Babur.

Nirbhay is India’s seventh missile development project after the Agni series, the Prithvi series, Brahmos (in a joint venture with Russia), Akash, Trishul and Nag. The last three were part of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme founded by A.P.J. Abdul Kalam.

Nirbhay is being developed alongside Astra, an air-to-air missile designed to hit targets beyond visual range.

A cruise missile can be guided to a target. A ballistic missile is fired at a pre-determined target. Nirbhay will carry onboard a terrain-identification system that will map its course and relay the information to its guidance and propulsion systems.

“Every modern military needs to have missile options. The requirement for Nirbhay was projected by all three armed forces to fill a gap in our missile programme,” Avinash Chander, the director of the Advanced Systems Laboratory, Hyderabad, who is in charge of the project, told The Telegraph in Delhi today.

Nirbhay will be a terrain-hugging missile capable of avoiding detection by ground-based radar. It would have a range of 1,000km.

“We have Brahmos, which is a supersonic cruise missile and the need was felt for a subsonic cruise missile that will be capable of being launched from multiple platforms in land, air and sea,” Chander said.

In the schedule drawn up for Nirbhay, a technology demonstrator is slotted for early 2009. Chander said the design for the system is complete and “hardware preparations are on”.

He said Nirbhay would weigh around 1,000kg and travel at 0.7 mach (nearly 840kmph) and would be capable of delivering 24 different types of warheads.

The Pakistan's chinese made subsonic cruise missile Babur (also called Hatf VII) has ranges of 500 to 700km. The US’s Tomahawk has many versions, the latest of which has ranges in excess of 1,500km.

DRDO Awards 2006: Awards presented to deserving defence scientists, establishments and private sector firms

DRDO Awards 2006: Awards presented to deserving defence scientists, establishments and private sector firms

Jul 9th, 2007 by FIDSNS

Prime Minister gave away DRDO Awards for the year 2006 to scientists, establishments and private sector firms in New Delhi, on July 07, 2007.

Silicon Trophy : In recognition of its vibrant, uncompromising and relentless efforts in updating the range techniques and range technologies in the country and extraordinary support provided to all armament research and development activities in the country, Silicon Trophy 2006 for the Best Systems Laboratory was awarded to Proof & Experimental Establishment, Chandipur.

Titanium Trophy : The Titanium Trophy for the Best Science Laboratory to Defence Research and Development Establishment (DRDE), Gwalior. The DRDE has developed a number of products and technologies, which have large scale military and civil end use, particularly in the field of chemical and biological defence.

DRDO Award for path breaking Research / Outstanding Technology Development : This award was conferred on Dr. VK Saraswat and his team of following scientists :-

Dr.SK Chaudhuri
Shri SP Dash
Shri DS Reddy
Shri RS Hastak
Shri M Palani
Shri G Satheesh Reddy
Shri K Jagdisan
Shri Adalat Ali
Shri S Gopinath
Shri UK SinghMs
Arundhati Bhattacharyya
Shri KC Maharana
Shri DL Seshagiri Rao
Shri CS Adishesha
Shri Y Srinivas Rao
Shri S Ravi Krishana
Shri D Niroop Singh
Shri Prabhakar M More
Shri Sameer Patel
Shri R Venkataram Reddy
Shri Sandeep Sharma
Shri Prashant MishraWg
Cdr U Rajababu

Shri N Prabhakar
Shri PSR Anjaneyulu
Shri N Isaac
Shri K Srinivas
Shri KS VaraprasadMs
S Ramya
Shri NV Kadam

Shri J Ram Mohan
Shri BVSR Murthy

Shri S Ravind
Shri KT Udayanarayana
Shri Gampala Viswam
Shri SS Nagaraj
Shri Sheikh Althaf

Shri R Appavu Raj
Shri MV Bhaskarachari
Dr.BK Das

Shri Surendra Kumar

Shri S Subhananda Rao
Shri Manoj Gupta

Shri SC Sati

Cdr S Chandran

Dr. VK Saraswat and his team achieved a unique milestone in the development of Area Defence System against ballistic missile attack on vulnerable areas by successfully intercepting an incoming missile with ballistic trajectory using interceptor PAD missile at exo-layer.

Shri NB Vijayakumar and his team (Shri SC Sati, Shri VB Ware, Shri S Bhaumik and Shri VH Made) from Research and Development Establishment (Engrs), Pune for design and development of main mobile hydro-pneumatic launcher prototype and power supply system, UAV handling devices and transportation containers, antenna system vehicle and EMI/EMC shelter for ground control station, avionics preparation vehicle, photo-processing vehicle, etc.

Shri SM Nirgude & his team (Ms CP Mahajan, Shri AP Narkhede, Shri SR Chavan, Shri BM Satisha and Ms Sobha Singh) from Armament Research and Development Establishment, Pune for designing and developing Influence Mine (Adrushy Mk II), the first “Smart Mine” for the Indian Army.

Shri VL Narasimhan and his team (Shri SC Bhattacharya, Shri AK Mandal, Shri LD Chavan, Shri AK Nandi, Ms S Basu, Shri VV Jadhav and Shri VB Sutar) from High Energy Materials Research Laboratory for successfully developing the process for preparing 1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene, a thermally stable, insensitive high explosive mainly used for strategic applications in the defence sector.

Shri G Satheesh Reddy & his team (Shri B Chattopadhyaya, Shri KC Nancharaiah, Shri Gopak Naik, Shri G Murali Krishna, Shri Manjeeth Kumar, Shri KC Das, Shri Anil Badegar, Ms Runa Banerjee, Shri Brijnesh Sitara and Ms M Vijayasree) from Research Centre Imarat, Hyderabad for successfully developing indigenous RLG – based INS – GPS system for fighter aircraft and medium / long range missile applications.

Dr. Sudershan Kumar & his team (Shri GL Baheti, Dr. Deepak Gopalani, Shri Alok Mukherjee, Dr. MVS Suryanarayana, Shri Taragu Prabhakar, Shri Sanjeev Pillai and Shri SK Shendge) from Defence Laboratory, Jodhpur and a group of DRDO Laboratories for development and production of NBC Recce vehicle.

Shri Ashok Sen and his team (Dr RS Pundir, Shri Sanjay Burman, Shri SO Gupta, Shri S Mahto, Shri LC Mangal and Shri Prakash Chand) from Defence Electronics Applications Laboratory, Dehradun and Centre for Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Bangalore for designing and developing a state-of-the-art software driven combat net radio and armoured fighter vehicle application.

Dr. SK Vasudeva & his team (Shri MR Gangur, Shri DS Reddy, Shri M Gurubasavraj, Shri S Gopinath, Shri PK Khosla, Shri Sreenivasan, Shri Amod Mathur, Smt U Jeya Shanti and Shri Gopi Chand) from System Planning & Implementation Centre, New Delhi and other laboratories for outstanding and innovative contributions in the design and development of indigenous armament system for a strategic programme of national importance.

M/s Active Carbon (I) Pvt Ltd, Hyderabad for significant contribution in successful absorption of the technology for production of NBC canisters and impregnated carbon for use in NBC canisters and filters for tanks, shelters, ships etc.

Shri RN Bhattacharjee of Defence Research and Development Laboratory, Hyderabad for significant contribution in the areas of control, guidance and system engineering studies for Akash, Nag and Trishul guided missile systems leading to successful completion of their development flight.

Shri MR Kesheorey of Centre for Artificial Intelligence and Robotics, Bangalore for successfully developing and fielding several versions of the speech secrecy equipment SECTEL.

Dr. R Sreehari Rao of Defence Electronics Research Laboratory, Hyderabad for development of electronic warfare subsystems and systems.

Dr KD Nayak of Advanced Numerical Research & Analysis Group, Hyderabad for indigenous development of critical application – specific integrated circuits for strategic application of the major programmes of DRDO like IGMDP and LCA.

Prof Manas K Mandal of Defence Institute of Psychological Research, Delhi for outstanding contribution in the field of military psychology.

Dr. Sri Prakash of Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior for development of semiochemicals based technology involving pheromone in combination with insect growth regulator for monitoring and control of dengue and chikungunya transmitting mosquito Aedes Aegypti.

Dr. Zakwan Ahmed of Field Research Laboratory, Leh for development and identification of varieties/hybrids of vegetable crops suitable for high altitude areas of Himalayan region.

Shri Tusharkanti Raychaudhuri of Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory, Chandigarh for the development of critical specialized technologies required for production of gas filled three electrode trigger spark gap switch.

Dr M Vijayakumar of Defence Metallurgical Laboratory, Hyderabad for development of technology for fabrication of continuous silica fiber reinforced silica composites for Agni missile.

Shri CD Malleswar of Naval Science & Technological Laboratory, Visakhapatnam, for design and development of high quality integrated anti-submarine warfare complex – IAC MOD ‘0’ – for naval frigates.

Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Delhi for design and development of ALOCAL an Aloe Vera cream as an anti frostbite preparation for use in cold areas at high altitudes.

Research & development Establishment (Engineers), Pune for design and development of life saving biomedical equipment such as hyperbaric chamber, nitric oxide therapy system, high – altitude breathing apparatus, etc.

High Energy Materials Research Laboratory, Pune for designing and assembling economic explosive detection and identification kit.

Centre for fire, explosive and Environment Safety, Delhi for developing technologies in the field of fire and environment safety.

Vehicle Research & Development Establish, Ahmednagar for successfully developing bullet-proof vehicles and riot-control vehicles and their productionisation through industry partners.

DRDO chief confirms submarine ballistic missile ready

DRDO chief confirms submarine ballistic missile ready

Sunday, July 08, 2007

New Delhi, July 7: The country is set to complete its nuclear triad with DRDO indicating that it has completed development of a Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBM).

While earlier DRDO refused to comment on the project, its chief M Natarajan on Saturday said a “special purpose missile” for the Navy has been launched.

Ministry sources said he was referring to the Sagarika or PJ 02 project SLBM. The two-stage missile, with a range of over 800 km, has been successfully tested thrice.

This will give India the capability to launch nuclear weapons from land, air and under sea.

Sources said an award for developing a “special armament system for a strategic programme of national importance” given to a team led by S K Vasudeva is an indication that the project would shortly be made public.

The missile has been developed for deployment on the indigenous nuclear submarine code named Advanced Technology Vehicle. The submarine is scheduled for sea trials next year.

DRDO also said it was working on an advanced version of the Agni III to increase its range by 1,500 km. Nata- rajan said scientists working on the project have figured out a way of adding a third stage to the missile that will push up its range to 5000 km.

“It looks possible to extend the range in the same model. We may be able to fit in another phase to extend it to another 1,500 km,” Natarajan said. The Agni III missile will be ready for induction into strategic command by 2010.

Kerala to have world-class DRDO missile facility soon

Kerala to have world-class DRDO missile facility soon

Wednesday June 27 2007 12:25 IST

T'PURAM : The state will soon have a worldclass DRDO missile development facility with the takeover of Kerala Hitech Industries Limited (Keltec) by BrahMos Aerospace.

Sources told this website’s newspaper that the takeover of Keltec by BrahMos was under the active consideration of Union Defence Ministry. Industry Department officials agreed that a formal agreement for take over of Keltec could be expected soon.

In May 2007, a Defence delegation from BrahMos visited Keltec to conduct spot study and analyse the potential of the company. The delegation members collected information and further directions are awaited from the Ministry of Defence.

A joint venture company with 50.5 percent stakes with the Indian Government and 49.5 percent shares by the Russian Government, BrahMos manufactures Supersonic Cruise Missiles with conventional warhead that can be launched from submarines, ships, aircraft or land.

These missiles are unique due to its 2.8 Mach supersonic speed with much longer strike range than other missiles. BrahMos has evinced its interest in the take over of Keltec and to develop it into a world-class missile facility with system integration and testing.

A supplier of high precision strategic defence and space equipment for the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and ISRO, Keltec looks forward for its technological upgradation.

According to the State GO dated March 22, 2007, the takeover of Keltec would attract initial additional investments of about Rs 200 crore to the state. The advanced missile development facility will be the first Defence production unit in Kerala.

The facility in conjunction with ISRO will generate tax revenue to the state.

DRDO develops anti-nuclear mask

DRDO develops anti-nuclear mask

Bangalore, May 19: In a significant development, the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has indigenously developed state-of-the-art equipments to face any eventualities arising out of modern warfare like that of nuclear or chemical weapons.

The Chief Controller of Life Sciences Research and Human Resources, DRDO, Dr Selvamurthy said that the defence services have already begun the use of masks and modern equipments.

"DRDO has nine life science labs across the country and they have indigenously developed nuclear, biological and chemical defence masks, and other 35 products to face any threat arising out of chemical and nuclear wars.

They have also developed bio warfare agents, field diagnostic kits to fight biological eventualities like that of typhoid, dengue, malaria, anthrax or any other viruses," he said.

The scientific arm of Indian Defence Services has also developed a de-contamination vehicle to sanitise air, ground and water.

"These labs have also developed chemical warfare detection system, portable chromatograph, to protect both civil and defence society. A de-contamination vehicle has also been developed to decontaminate air, ground and water," he said.

DRDO decides to invite faculty from colleges for collaborative research

DRDO decides to invite faculty from colleges for collaborative research

The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) will invite teaching faculty from science and engineering colleges for carrying out research in its laboratories in collaboration with DRDO scientists.

This is part of its efforts to partner educational institutions for promoting research and coming up with products that will enhance the nation's defence capability, S. Vathsal, Director (Extramural Research and Intellectual Property Rights), DRDO, New Delhi, said here on Friday.

He was talking to reporters at Arunai Engineering College, where he had come to participate in the National Conference on Simulation, Modelling and Optimisation. Dr. Vathsal said the Defence Ministry was planning to enhance allocation for research and development.

DRDO would invite academics aged between 25-40. It would provide the seed money. They would be required to prove their research findings through patents and publications within a year.


DRDO was already collaborating on 265 projects with 88 educational institutions and universities. Such collaboration, hitherto confined to government educational institutions, would be extended to private institutions in future.

Dr. Vathsal said the DRDO was trying to enhance the number of patents obtained by Indian scientists. India did not figure among the top 10 nations with respect to the number of patents. It had about 5,000 to 6,000 patents. Patents held by the U.S. ran into several lakhs.

High cost of patents

The small number could be attributed to the very high cost of applying for a patent. Now the Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC), Department of Science and Technology, had come forward to fund the efforts of universities, scientists and engineers in obtaining patents.

"We have about 10 to 15 success stories where the collaborative projects with universities have been useful in direct applications in the defence sector", he said, replying to a question on whether the collaborative projects had been useful to the country.

Dr. Vathsal said the country's technological development depended on forging a strong link among academic institutions, R&D laboratories and industry. Academic institutions should provide the manpower for research.

The labs would provide the facilities. And industry should manufacture the products developed.

"This link is very weak at present, and we are trying to strengthen it", he added.

Indian Missile Defense: Lower Atmosphere Interceptors To Be Developed By DRDO

INDIAN Missile Defense: Lower Atmosphere Interceptors To Be Developed By DRDO

Dated 2/12/2006

Buoyed by a successful missile interception in higher atmospheric zone, defence scientists are now planning to shoot down incoming warheads, much closer to ground, with a new missile named Pad.

The country's top Missile Scientist Vijay Kumar Saraswat told a press conference today that "within the next three to four months the DRDO is planning to carry out another missile interception in the endo-atmospheric zone" -- a pattern used by the Americans in the development of their Patriot PAC-III anti-missile shield.

"We have demonstrated the technology to defend against incoming ballistic missile threat," he said, but added it would take another three to four years to develop for the country a full-fledged anti-missile theatre shield.

Saraswat's announcement comes in the midst of recent criticism of the DRDO which has been accused of allowing "heavy time and cost overruns" in critical projects.

He admitted that the Pad was still a technology demonstrator and said it would need another half-a-dozen tests to validate it as a missile shield.

The scientist said in any future indigenous missile shields, India would have to have a mix of exo-atmospheric and endo-atmospheric interception capabilities to match short reaction threats.

He ruled out that India might opt out of trying to acquire either the American or Israeli anti-missile system saying "we are only at the beginning and at this stage co-development or outright acquisition cannot be counted of."

Saraswat is the Chief Controller of the country's missile programme and project director of the air defence missiles, whose team successfully carried out India's first ever surface-to-surface missile interception in the exo-atmospheric zone on November 27.

DRDO made Dhanush Test Fired Successfully

DRDO made Dhanush Test Fired Successfully

BALASORE: India's indigenously developed surface-to-surface ballistic missile Dhanush was on Friday test-fired from a naval ship in the Bay of Bengal off Orissa coast.

The test launch was conducted from INS Subhadra , about 40 nautical miles from Chandipur-on-sea, at around 2.30 pm, sources said.

Dhanush , considered the naval version of surface-to-surface missile Prithvi, was being exclusively developed for the Indian Navy and has a striking range of 250 km to 350 km.

It can be deployed as an anti-ship weapon as well as for destroying land targets depending on the range. It can carry both conventional and nuclear weapons in its operational stage.

Friday's test launch, carried out by scientists of Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), had been tracked from its take-off to impact point through an integrated network of sophisticated radars and electro-optic instruments for data analysis.

The 8.56 metre long missile had a launch weight of 4,600 kg and uses a single stage liquid propellant engine.

Dhanush was test-fired for the first time on April 11, 2000, from the integrated test range (ITR) at Chandipur-on-sea. However, it had failed at the blast-off stage due to technical snag in its software system.

The second test was carried out from INS Subhadra on September 21, 2001.

The two subsequent experiments were carried out on November 7, 2004 and December 28, 2005 from INS Subhadra and INS Rajput respectively.

DRDO's LRDE working on Rajendra III radar

DRDO's LRDE working on Rajendra III radar

9 May, 2007

Electronics & Radar Development Establishment (LRDE) a unit of Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) has embarked on developing advanced version of indigenous Rajendra II radar and is called Rajendra III. Rajendra III is indigenous slewable phased array radar.

The BLR-III vehicle on T-72 chasis is ready for track test. Phased array antenna has been fabricatedin Bharat Rlectronics Limited (BEL), Ghaziabad.

Collimated beam pattern and s/s cure for all 16 spot frequencies has been taken.

Rajendra II Radar

Rajendra II Radar is also slewable passive phased array radar. By 2005, Rajendra II had participated in more than 15 flight trials at Balasore missile testing range. The flight trials have been spread over 4 missions in both group and autonomous mode.

High altitude engagement, far boundary engagement, crossing and receding target engagement and multiple missions against multiple targets capabilities have been established.

Consistency in performance of radar in guiding missiles as close as 15m is established. During a mission, a Pilot less Target Aircraft (PTA) was neutralized while engaging crossing and receding target.

Rajendra radar is used for 3-D target detection, multi target tracking and multiple missile guidance under extreme hostile EW environment.

A main phased array consisting of 4000 phase control modules (PCMs), and a command phased array consisting of 1000 PCMs have been built to achieve the multi-functionality. A powerful high-end computer computes phases for all the elements of the array.

Rajendra controls the beam positioning sequence through beam requests for each track at adaptive data rates and performs multifunctional roles like search –confirm –track -interrogate targets, assign and lock on launchers, and launch/acquire/ track/guide missiles.

The RDP supplies track data to remote group control centre. Rajendra features a Dual channel radar receiver and a C band transmitter, although the complete transmiting and receiving features and bands are unknown.

Rajendra Multisensor Tracking features 2-D battery surveillance radar (BSR) with 360 degree coverage and a larger detection range provides track data to the multifunction, slewable, 3-D phased array radar.

The multisensor direction finder in Rajendra processes the track data from the phased array radar and the BSR to identify the targets reported by both the sensors and maintains a common track database.

For those BSR tracks, which are not being reported by Rajendra though under its coverage, target acquisition is initiated with elevation search in the designated direction. The antenna is skewed in the direction of threat to acquire the targets, which are outside the covered air space.

The major functions of the radar are:
•Surveillance of the assigned volume of space
•Acquisition of aircraft targets either independently or handed over from group control centre and battery surveillance radar
•Tracking of targets
•Tracking of assigned targets and missiles during engagement
•Command guidance of missiles
•Integrated IFF functions

The AKASH Surface to Air Missile (SAM) system is guided by Rajendra radar. Rajendra radar features a “phase shifter” technology.

Phase shifter when integrated in large numbers for electronic beam steering, allows Rajendra radar to simultaneously track multiple aircraft and also guide multiple missiles towards these targets.

The phase shifter was designed and developed by Prof Bharati Bhat, a scientist from Centre for Applied Research in Electronics (CARE) of IIT, Delhi, and her team.

Defence Institute of Physiology & Allied Sciences (DIPAS)

Defence Institute of Physiology & Allied Sciences (DIPAS)

Historical Background

Defence Institute of Physiology & Allied Sciences (DIPAS) was officially established on 20th September 1962. In India, research in military physiology was initiated in the year 1950 through a small group of scientists and medical physiologists within the realm of Defence Science Laboratory, Delhi. In 1962, with the thrust area identification of high altitude physiology, nutrition and biochemistry of human in severe stress environment and also with the urgent need felt for ergonomic assessment of workstations and man-machine interface, a full-fledged laboratory was established.

In 1968, the laboratory was relocated within the premises of Army base Hospital, Delhi Cantonment. In the year 1993, the lab was shifted to its present permanent premise at Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi.

During the early years, DIPAS has contributed extensively in all major areas of immediate application to defence operation, viz. ration scale and nutrition of soldiers sizing clothing, load carriage and distribution in infantry soldiers, thermal comfort zone identification, nature of heat casualty, salt & water requirement in summer, habitability survey of naval ships and physical training and conditioning schedule.

While continuing with these issues related to immediate operational needs as faced by the users, research studies also emanated in tune with the time and the emerging technology.

Extensive research work was carried out on yoga and adaptogen as performance enhancer in extreme environment, body water distribution on heat induced hypohydration and its correction, neurophysiological mechanism of HAPE, development of protective mechanism against noise induced hearing loss and thermal evaluation of protective clothing.

Today, DIPAS is a leading laboratory in physiology and biomedical research in the country with the primary mandate of promoting human performance in extreme environment of Defence operation.

With 50 scientists, 200 technical officers & support staff members and 30 research scholars in its strength and a very specialised infrastructure, it has its characteristic research abilities to conduct studies on human volunteers in actual field conditions and in laboratory simulated environments.

Its Ergonomics lab with Motion Analysis and Force Plate System has developed into a state of art competency in biomechanics research. Animal models are used for invasive organ system studies. Cell line research has been inducted for biological screening of plant extracts of interest in Program Charak: Herbs for Health of Armed Forces. Other program in hand viz. Biotechnology 2000 and studies on molecular mechanisms of acclimatisation employ molecular biology tools extensively. The laboratory has an elaborate networking with the biomedical agencies and academia within the country and abroad.

Defence Institute of Physiology & Allied Sciences (DIPAS)


Carbogen Breathing System for Ameliorating Noise Induced Hearing Loss:
Breathing Carbogen (CO2: 5% and O2: 95%) for 5 minutes before and after exposure to noise offers protection against noise induced hearing loss. A user-friendly system developed, clinically tried and is ready for induction in establishments where operators are engaged in high noise work environment.

Combating Cold Injuries in the High Altitude:
Development of Aloe Vera Cream for prevention and treatment of Cold Injuries
A Combination of Petoxyfylline, Vitamin C, and low dose Aspirin along with Aloe Vera application in soldiers showing early signs of cold injury is found to be effective in reducing the morbidity due to frostbite in glacier region. The role of prophylactic application of Aloe Vera cream has been successfully studied in soldiers deployed in Northern Glacier for prevention of cold injuries.

Development of Heating Gloves and Socks for use in Glacier:
Electrically powered heating gloves and socks have been successfully evaluated for their effectiveness in providing protection against cold stress especially to the extreme parts of the body (fingers and toes) at an ambient temperature of -15oC. The device is being developed in collaboration with MECON, Ranchi.

Development of Delivery System for Nitric Oxide and Oxygen Gas Mixture:
Administration of Nitric Oxide (15 ppm) in nitrogen with oxygen (50 %) has been found to help in treatment of High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE). A simple, safe and efficient delivery system developed for precise administration of Nitric Oxide & Oxygen breathing gas mixture. Mark I of the Delivery System has been installed at DIPAS for detailed testing and is found to be satisfactory. The user-friendly version Mark II delivery system with a mass flow controller for the NO delivery is presently under development in collaboration with R&DE (Engrs), Pune.

Development of Hyperbaric Chamber for Naval Divers:
A multicrew Hyperbaric Chamber complete with a monoplace transfer chamber and pressure related physiological monitoring system is in final stage of development in collaboration with R&DE (Engrs), Pune. The Chamber will facilitate conduct of studies on naval divers under simulated deep sea diving conditions and in therapeutics of any possible accidents in under water operations.

Development of Thermoelectric Cooling System for Heat Stress Management :
A miniaturized Thermoelectric Cooling Unit along with Cooling Garment has been developed in collaboration with CVRDE, Avadi; DEBEL, Bangalore and MECON, Ranchi. After incorporating necessary modifications, two such systems have been successfully evaluated for their efficacy in providing an effective heat (300 W) transfer from human body to the environment while operating under extreme hot environment.

The Unit on its integration into the MBT tank had been successfully evaluated for its cooling efficiency using the liquid cooled garment. Further, users demonstration trial of the Unit was held at Mahajan Ranges, Suratgarh and found to perform satisfactorily in terms of body cooling of a single user. The system has been recommended for modification for Multicrew use in the tank.

Preparation of Anthropometric Database of Air Force personnel :
A user oriented project on Air Force personnel titled ‘Anthropometric survey of Air Force personnel to formulate height-weight BMI nomograms and to determine sizing parameters for clothing and personal life support systems’ has recently been completed on 7000 Air Force personnel in order to look into the status of body composition and offer an ideal height weight Chart for its intended use in induction and during review of annual medical. The study also generates a huge database for sizing of uniforms, personal equipment, protective clothing and life support systems.

Stress Management Programme in Coronary Artery Disease Regression:
Lifestyle intervention studies consisting of low fat, high fiber vegetarian diet, moderate aerobic exercise and stress management through Rajyoga meditation have been carried out on 518 angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD) patients to evaluate the effectivity of this new modality of stress management in helping regression of CAD as monitored by repeat angiographies, cardiac events, TMT, echocardiography, blood chemistry and hormonal profile. This intervention technique was found to produce remarkably effective regression of CAD.

Acclimatization Schedule and Tenure of Posting at High Altitude
Research on problems at high altitude assumes special significance in the national context of deployment of a large population of troops along the Eastern and Western Himalayas guarding our Northern borders. Extensive research has been carried out by DIPAS to assess various physiological, biochemical and psychological responses on early induction and during acclimatization to high and extreme altitude. Based on these studies, acclimatization schedule and the tenure of stay were formulated for different heights.

Ration Scale Formulation and Review
DIPAS conducted extensive studies on nutritional requirements of troops operating in different environmental conditions, such as high altitude, deserts and submarine, and ration scales were formulated on the basis of studies on energy and nutritional requirements in actual operational conditions.

Yoga for Stress Management
Yogic exercise found to improve several physiological, and psychological functions in young and middle-aged soldiers. It has also been seen to enhance the tolerance to stress, which may be environmental or emotional in origin. Based on a series of studies, recommendations were made to introduce yogic exercised in selected areas where the ease of practice of PT may be limited due to logistic constraints

Adaptogens for Stress Management
Herbal preparation of traditional use in the country for their adaptogenic effects to stress were evaluated for their efficacy, initially in the lab animals and subsequently in limited field trial and large scale field trial. Administration of a Composite Indian Herbal Preparation (CIHP) was found to have significant adaptogenic benefits in ameliorating stress induced psych-physiological dysfunctions.

-Studies on the Mutagenic and Carcinogenic potential for Microwave
-Immunomodulatory effect of Agents of Plant Origin
-Kombucha Tea: Studies on Chemistry, Stress Tolerance, Immuno-Modulation and Toxicity

-Large Scale Field Trial of Composite Indian Herbal Preparation I & II (CIHP I & II) for introduction in the Army
-Coronary Artery Disease regression through Life Style Changes: Vegetarianism, Moderate Exercise and Stress Management through Rajyoga Meditation.
-Effect of Yogic Exercise on Physiological and Anti Oxidant system in Man.
Physiological Evaluation of NBC Clothing

-Studies on Oral Glutamic Acid (Glu) supplementation in Ameliorating High Altitude Stress and improvement in Cognitive Functions.
-Role of Zinc in Combating Heat stress and Hypoxia Stress in Humans: Moderate Altitude/Extreme Altitude.

-Studies on the treatment of cold injury: Using Therapeutic rewarming in decoction of tea leaves and combined therapy of Pentoxifylline, Aspirin and Vitamin C with prophylactic application Aloe Vera Cream.
-Effect of Extreme Altitude on Sensory Threshold and Cognitive functions.
-Facilitation of Man-Machine interface in Military Environment
- Biomechanical study on the Optimization of Load Carriage in Indian Army Personnel
- Anthropometric Database on Women induced in Indian Armed Forces and female NCC Cadets.
-Acclimatization and performance of Armed Force Personnel at High Altitude
Occupation Noise Induced Oxidative Stress and remedial measures

-Anthropometric survey of Air Force Personnel to formulate height-weight-BMI nomograms and to determine sizing parameters for clothing and personnel life supports system.
-A pilot study on molecular mechanism of High Altitude Acclimatization by differential gene expression analysis:
-Assessment of nutritional requirements of armed forces personnel at various condition of climate and training
-Miniaturization of Solid State Cooling unit for the tank crew.

Naval Materials Research Laboratory (NMRL)

Naval Materials Research Laboratory (NMRL)

Historical Background

Naval Materials Research Laboratory (NMRL), Mumbai, was established in 1953 as Naval Chemical & Metallurgical Laboratory, an in house laboratory of the Navy. The Laboratory was brought under the administrative control of DRDO in early sixties.

The Laboratory, which was earlier located in a small multistoried complex at Naval Dockyard, Mumbai, has now moved to its own technical-cumresidential complex at MIDC Area, Ambernath, Maharashtra.
However, a small compliment catering mainly to the scientific support to the Fleet and other Naval establishments continues to remain functional at the Naval Dockyard. From a modest beginning, the laboratory has now grown into a full-fledged materials laboratory.
It is now recognized as a single-window agency for all materials requirement of the Navy.

Naval Materials Research Laboratory (NMRL)


Past Projects successfully completed
-Development of Fuel Cell Technology
-Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC)
-Miniature Fuel Cell based on Solid Polymer Electrolyte Membrane
-Methanol Reformer for FC
-Flameless room heater BUKHARI ( Thermal capacity of 1.5 kW and 4.0 kW ) for high altitude room heating
-Novel Electroless Anti-fouling Device (NEAD) for controlling bio-fouling settlement.
-Development of Materials Protection Technology/Systems
-Advanced ICCP system consisting of Pt-Ti anode, Ag / AgCl reference electrode
-Advanced Auto control unit and high performance sacrificial anodes.
-Titanium tube drain cooler
-Boiler and condenser cleaning composition and processes
-High performance paints for ship hull, battery pits, superstructures and decks.
-Fire retardant paint for protection of underneath substrate
-Second Generation Antifouling Paint based on co-polymer of PMMA-TBTM.
-Development of Speciality materials & Technology : Polymeric, Metallurgy & Ceramic
-Chemical Light Stick
-Polymer for functional requirement
-Polymer for structural requirement
-Microwave absorbing materials
-Marine steels and welding technologies
-Light weight structural panels (LIST)
-Metal matrix composites (MMCs) – Fe-TiC & LM25 / TiB2
-Flameless ration heater based on electrochemically reacting composition.
-PZT transducer materials and PZT-Polymer composites / Hydrophones
-YSZ powders for monoliths and coatings
-ZTA Ceramics for body and vehicle armour
-Chemical Cleaning Composition for in-situ cleaning of cupro-nickel heat exchanger and boiler
-Soluble pellets for torpedoes
-Development of Processes for Marine Environment Control
-Bioemulsifier for bio-remediation of floating oil on seawater surface
-Microprocessor based carbon dioxide control system.

Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory (TBRL)

Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory (TBRL)

Historical Background

Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory (TBRL) was envisaged in 1961 as one of the modern armament research laboratories under the Department of Defence Research & Development. The laboratory became fully operational in 1967 and was formally inaugurated in January 1968 by the then Defence Minister. While the main laboratory is situated in Chandigarh, the firing range, spread over an area of 5000 acre, is located at Ramgarh in Haryana, 22 km away from Chandigarh. Over the past three decades, the Laboratory has grown into an institution of excellence and has become one of the major technical bases in the field of armament studies in DRDO.

The Laboratory facilitates basic and applied research in the fields of high explosives, detonics and shock waves, evolving data and design parameters for new armament stores and assessing terminal effects of ammunition under indigenous development/foreign origin.

Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory (TBRL)


Battle Range for Small Arms
TBRL has designed battle range for practicing small arms firing. This has reduced the area required as compared to conventional range. Consultancy for construction of such ranges is being provided to various units of Army/Para-military forces.

Indigenous Plastic Bonded Explosives
Developed and established technology for Plastic Bonded Explosives (PBX), the latest class of HE compositions with high VOD and higher detonation pressures

Indigenous Digital Blast Data Recorder
This recorder was developed based on a new design technique, for direct measurement of important blast wave parameters

Indigenous Transducer for Blast-Measurement
Developed a blast pressure transducer for measuring pressures upto 14 kgm sqcm. It has a sensitivity of 1400 pc/kgm sqcm with a natural frequency of 200 KHz. These transducers are in regular production and being used by a no. of Laboratories. Impulse Generator : It has been developed for the simulation of impulse noise (=190 dB ) and testing of artificial earplugs used by Armed Forces Medical Services

Impulse Generator
It has been developed for the simulation of impulse noise (=190 dB ) and testing of artificial earplugs used by Armed Forces Medical Services

Bund Blasting Device (BBD)
Designed and developed Bund Blasting Device for breaching operation.

General Purpose Anti-personnel Grenade
Multi-mode hand grenade designed and developed with reliability >95%.

Riot Control Non-lethal Bullet
Designed and developed a non-lethal ammunition in two service calibres, viz. 7.62 mm and .303-inch for effective control of unruly rioting mobs.

IGLOO Magazine
A new construction technique of laced reinforced concrete construction in which continuous bent shear lacing alongwith longitudinal reinforcements on both faces of structure element are used for improving the ductility and energy absorbing capacity of the structure has been developed for a capacity of 5 Ton explosives. This design is being used by a no. of DRDO labs, Ordnance factories, DGQA and service depots.

Microwave Tube Research & Development Center(MTRDC)

Microwave Tube Research & Development Center(MTRDC)

Historical Background

MTRDC is a constituent R&D laboratory of Defence Research & Development Organisation, Ministry of Defence. It was established in 1984, with an aim to develop advanced types of microwave tubes to meet the present and futuristic needs of the country and establish self-reliance in this strategic area.

MTRDC initially started in CASSA, Bangalore and moved to a small accommodation in the Bharat Electronics Complex, Bangalore. It was housed in its own building in 1992 near the Microwave Tube Division of Bharat Electronics in order to facilitate continuous interaction between the R&D and production teams. MTRDC has built a residential complex in HMT Township just 4 km away from the laboratory.

Today, it has a team of 125 highly qualified and dedicated scientists, technologists and office staff. A number of travelling-wave tubes and technologies have been developed for which Transfer of Technology to Bharat Electronics is under progress. MTRDC has to its credit a number of national awards and several papers have been published in national and international levels.

Microwave Tube Research & Development Center(MTRDC)


2 kW pulsed X-Ku band Helix TWT for Airborne ECM System
10kW pulsed Ku band Coupled Cavity TWT for airborne radar
6.5 KW pulsed X-band Coupled-Cavity TWT for airborne radar
S band 130 KW (pulsed) Coupled -cavity TWT
M type Cathodes
Microwave Power Module

The Institute of Technology Management (ITM)

The Institute of Technology Management (ITM)

Historical Background

The Institute of Technology Management (ITM) is a premier training institute of Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO), Ministry of Defence, Govt. of India. The Institute is existing since 1962, as Defence Institute of Work Study and then as ITM from 1994. The institute is located in the salubrious and picturesque surroundings of Himalayan Ranges in Mussoorie (Uttranchal).

ITM offers training in specific subjects in the areas of Technology Management, Project Management and R&D Management etc. for DRDO Scientists. These courses are also open to others in Government, Public and Private Sector Undertakings. Keeping pace with our changing technological maturity, the institute charter has been expanded and it is now contemplated as follows :
-To impart training in Management with specific emphasis on Management of Technology to all personnel of DRDO, the three Services, other Defence Ministry personnels, officers from undertakings and public and private enterprises.
-To identify, take up and encourage research work in Technology Management with specific emphasis on : New Product Development; MOT; Project Management; Quality Assurance and Reliability; Administrative Management; Material Management; Financial Management; Computer Application in Management; Contract Management; Behavioural Science and Stress Management.
-To provide management consultancy to Government and Non Government developments for creating and maintaining necessary management database for the same.

The institute constantly update and upgrade management education programs. There is regular interaction with important professional institute such as ASCI, IIMs and IITs on various management programmes and faculty exchange/development.

We, at ITM endeavor to tailor our programmes to ensure that our participants show visible improvements in their performance after successful completion of their education at this institute. We urge our user organizations and passing out students to keep providing us with feedback to help us to attain our goal of excellence in Technology Management Education.

A significant academic 'Milestone' has been achieved by ITM by earning recognition as a "Centre for Doctoral Research" leading to award of D.Phil degree by HNB Garhwal University with effect from 26 Jan 2004. This has opened up as an avenue for DRDO fraternity to pursue Doctoral Research in Management without interrupting their day-to-day research activities at their respective labs.

The Institute of Technology Management (ITM)


The Training Year 2004-05 has been an immensely satisfying year in which we at ITM endeavoured to provide inputs to participants that have a direct bearing on their work areas. Our courses have been well received, as indicated by the feedback from participants and by the overwhelming response from DRDO Labs..

There was no dearth of challenges and opportunities during the past year and ITM team delivered the desired results through dedication and untiring efforts. The high point of the year was the successful conduct of Fourth Global Conference on Flexible Systems Management (GLOGIFT-2005) co-hosted by ITM in association with Global Institute of Flexible Management, New Delhi, from 26 to 29 Dec 2004.

Field Research Laboratory (FRL)

Field Research Laboratory (FRL)

Historical Background

Field Research Laboratory (FRL), one of the laboratories of Defence Research & Development Organization (DRDO), New Delhi located at Leh (11,500 ft) is brain child of the first Prime Minister of India, late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.
It was established under the administrative control of DRDO in 1962 to wage war with nature for making hostile terrain of Ladakh reasonably green and productive, not only to sustain its meager and sparse population but also military and paramilitary forces deployed in this sector.
The laboratory has its research stations at Ranbirpura (11,900 ft) and Partapur (Nubra-Siachen Brigade – 9,500 ft) and its rear base at ‘N’ Area, Chandigarh.

Field Research Laboratory (FRL)


1. Vegetable Science
-Standardised agro-techniques (organically) for 65 types of vegetables including tropical, subtropical and temperate vegetables. Suitable varieties/hybrids for all these crops were also identified.
-New vegetable crops such as parsley, celery, sarda melon, Japanese bunching onion, sweet turnip, karam sag, chenopodium and garlic were introduced and the cultivation practices are being standardized.
-Seed production technology for vegetable crops were standardized and demonstrated.
-Garlic aerial true to type seed bulbil technology which saves up to 15 q/ h planting material was successfully demonstrated.
-Solar based greenhouses including low cost double walled polyenches and trenches were designed and its suitability for round the year vegetable cultivation was standardized, demonstrated and disseminated.
-Greenhouses and have already been established along the LOC including Kargil and Siachen for round the year vegetable cultivation.
-Established terrace farming with integrated irrigation system with drip, sprinkler and studied the water use efficiency and established 50% water saving.
-Underground storage techniques for storage of perishable vegetables during frozen winters were developed and demonstrated.
-Achieved vegetable supply of 50% of total demand of the army deployed in ‘L’ sector through local farmer’s co-operative/ marketing society.
-FRL green house technology has been accepted by LAHDC for dissemination to the locals and is providing Rs. 50,000 subsidy per greenhouse.
-Triple layered polycarbonate green houses are most suitable to grow early seedlings i.e. in 1st week of April for protected cultivation to take early crop and also ensuring 300% cropping intensity.

2. Horticulture & Post Harvest Technology
-Surveyed, identified, evaluated and conserved 54 genotypes of indigenous apricot from cold arid Ladakh.
-Developed vegetative methods of propagation in apricot by grafting, chip budding and top working.
-Established scion bud wood bank and progeny orchard of apricot.
Standardized propagation techniques for apple through grafting and budding.
-Established gene bank of apricot, apple, seabuckthorn, cherry, walnut, strawberry, mulberry
-Developed processing /value addition techniques for low quality apricot for production of nectar, jam, jelly, juice, nectar / RTS, puree, hurdle technology, Intermediate moisture, bar etc. which have industrial potential.
-Surveyed variability and area under seabuckthorn, a wonder plant of cold dessert (about 11,500ha) using remote sensing technology.
-Developed the technology for preparation of herbal beverage from fruits of seabuckthorn. The beverage is rich sources of vitamin A, C, B, K, & E and does not freeze up to -22 degree centigrade. Since the product is having anti-aging and anti-stress properties, it has been included in the special ration of Indian Army. Transferred the technology to 4 vendors and they are manufacturing the herbal beverage commercially.
-Also developed technology for production of jam, sauce, puree, pickle, chyavanaprash and other beverage from seabuckthorn, which will be exploited on commercial scale.
-The laboratory has designed & developed low cost drier such as solar polyhouse drier, Tunnel drier, LPG driers, drier for scientific dehydration of surplus fruit and vegetables of the region.
-Developed mechanical harvester for Seabuckthorn fruit collection without damaging the plant
-Developed polyploids of Seabuckthorn through colchine treatment for developing ideal ideotype
-Developed grafted Seabuckthorn through intergeneric (Elaegnus sp) grafting technique having less thorn
-In order to develop floriculture industry in the region the laboratory has introduced and demonstrated the cultivation of improved varieties of gladiolus, Asiatic Lilium, carnation for their commercial production.
-FRL recognized as nodal center for FPO licencing and granted FPO license No. 19066.

3. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
-Surveyed, identified and documented floristic wealth of Ladakh and Lahaul-Spiti with emphasis on medicinal & aromatic plants.
-Rare, endangered and threatened medicinal & aromatic plants viz. Aconitum sp, Dactylorhiza sp, Ephedra sp, Inula sp, Podophyllum sp were enlisted and conserved as ex situ.
-Techniques were developed for propagation and cultivation of 30 high altitude medicinal & aromatic plants for commercial cultivation.
-Established Alpine herbal garden of 50 medicinal & aromatic plants for R&D activities.
-Phytochemical studies being carried out for high altitude medicinal & aromatic plants viz. Hippophae sp, Rhodiola sp, Podophyllum sp to develop herbal medicines for high altitude maladies under Programme CHARAK.
-Extraction of oil from pulp and seed of seabuckthorn was standardized and physico-chemical properties were studied.
-Designed morphological descriptor for seabuckthorn based on 81 attributes
Essential oils were extracted from high altitude aromatic plants viz. Artemisia sp, Dracocephallum sp, Mentha sp, Salvia sp, Tanacetum sp for its commercialisation.
-Medicated DRDO herbal tea was formulated using high altitude medicinal & aromatic plants. The technology has been transferred for commercial production and introduced in high altitude ration of army.
-Herbal appetizer has been formulated by using high altitude medicinal plants and tested for toxicity and found to be non-toxic. Clinical studies are in progress.

4. Biotechnology
-Studied molecular variability of 19 indigenous Seabuckthorn germplasm and found five genetically diverse groups.
-Standardised micropropagation protocols for Stevia, Artemisia and Strawberry.
-Isolated 25 gram positive/catalase strains from Leh soil, which are growing at pH 6.8 -11.0 and are able to grow at 2.5 – 7.0 % salt concentrations. Three isolates are capable to hydrolyse, caseine, the other 04 starch and 13 isolates are capable to hydrolyse gelatin
-Protein profiling of 52 apricot germplasm was done.

5. Poultry
-Developed cold arid poultry production technology to boost the availability of meat and eggs.
-Developed solar poultry housing system suited for high altitudes to utilize the solar energy, reducing dependence on conventional energy sources and to achieve optimum cost of production.
-Introduced alternative sources of meat i.e. turkeys in Ladakh region. Conducted user’s cum acceptability trial for alternate meat sources and found Turkeys acceptable to army in lieu of broiler during winter periods.
-Formulated balanced and economical poultry feed suitable for high altitude, cold arid conditions thereby reducing incidence of Ascites and nutritional deficiency disease cases.
-Poultry production is being enhanced through small local poultry farmers by providing vital technical support.
-Established a broiler unit of 400 birds capacity at GRTU Raiwala for the purpose of training & demonstration to the Gorkha troops for rehabilitation programme.
-Generated crossbred fowls of local X commercial broilers through 3 way crosses to select desired genotypes for breed development, suitable for cold climatic conditions.

6. Dairy
-Upgradation of local cattle is being carried out by providing natural service to local cows by proven sire and adopting assisted reproductive technique such as artificial insemination.
-Dairy farming techniques for Ladakh sector were developed and disseminated to local farmers by pedigree calves distribution programme.
-Clinical diagnostic and therapeutic facilities were disseminated to the local farmers.
-Ensuring supply of fresh milk to troops deployed in ‘L’ sector.

7. Sheep & Goat
-Developed package of practices for breeding and rearing of sheep and goat in cold desert
-Generated F1’s (broiler sheep) of Muzzafarnagri x Changthangi and its reciprocal as well as Pashmina x Chegu goat.
-Broiler sheep i.e. F1’s of Muzzafarnagri x Changthangi is found fast growing

8. Equine breeding
-Local equine germplasm (Zanskar ponies) of Ladakh are being conserved, multiplied and upgraded. Genetic characterization of Zanskar ponies and the progeny is being carried out by molecular characterization.
-Generated crossbred equines (Zanskar mares X Half linger stallion) and mules (Zanskar mares X Donkey stallion).
-Comparative performance of Zanskar ponies, GS Mules and GS ponies was evaluated at high altitude and found Zanskari breed superior over GS mules and ponies.
-Training of ponies and issue to Ladakh Scout was done to meet their annual wastage requirements.
-Evolved a package of equine management practices for sustained performance of pack animals without affecting their general health and condition.
-The Zanskari ponies are being issued to army at the place of GS mules/ponies in ‘L’ sector.
-The artificial insemination (AI) technology was employed first time in Zanskari ponies and genetically superior crossbreds and Zanskari foals were born through this technology.

9. Agroforestry and Transfer of Technology
-Contributed in greening of ‘L’ sector, which resulted in eco-environment improvement.
-Standardised propagation techniques of forest species such as Populus, Salix, Elaeagnus, Ulmus and Syringa.
-Developed of database on cold arid agro-animal technology
-Regular training on agro-animal activities viz. vegetable cultivation, raising of vegetable nursery, greenhouse cultivation for subzero vegetable cultivation, cultivation of exotic vegetables, quality vegetable seed production, processing of surplus vegetables, processing of vegetables and fruits, poultry rearing and production, dairy management to troops and local people under OP Sadbhawana, NGO’s and general public.

10. Extension services
-Disseminating the agro-animal technologies through:
-Literature distribution, Farm demonstration, Imparting training & consultancy
Organising Kisan Jawan Vigyan Mela
-Distributing the improved basic inputs
-Radio and TV talks

11. Patents
-Process of preparation of multivitamin herbal beverage from seabuckthorn fruits.
-Process for preparation of herbal jam from fruits of seabuckthorn
-Formulation of DRDO herbal tea from trans-Himalayan herbs
-A process for preparation of a radio protective herbal extract.
-An underground structure for moderating extreme cold conditions for storage of vegetables during winter in cold desert region
-Solar based semi underground greenhouse technology for vegetable production in subzero temperature
-Design of solar polyhouse drier for drying of surplus vegetables and fruits
-Design of Solar Poultry house
-Double wall polyench greenhouse

12. Publications
-Documentary films
-Jai Jawan Jai Kisan Jai Vigyan
-Medicinal plants of Ladakh
-Vegetable cultivation in Ladakh
-Vegetable Production in Ladakh
-Agriculture in Ladakh
-Societal Contribution of vegetables in Ladakh
-Protected Cultivation of vegetables in Ladakh (In Hindi)
-Cold Desert Plants (Vol: I -V)
-Transformation of a Ladakhi village – Nang
-Sindhu Darshan (A annual Hindi Magazine)
-Alfalfa (Lucerne) Production in Ladakh
-Gladiolus Cultivation in Ladakh
-Dairy Farming in Ladakh
-A checklist on medicinal and aromatic plants of trans-Himalaya
-Ladakh mein Sabjiyon ka utpadan (In Hindi)
-FRL Chronicle (1962-2004). In Pursuit of Excellence.
-The Seabuckthorn
-Production technology of garlic in cold desert
-Cold desert trans Himalayan plants and ethnobotany (Ladakh & Lahul Spiti)

Extension Folders
-FRL at a glance
-Strawberry Cultivation in Ladakh
-Gladiolus cultivation in Ladakh
-Seabuckthorn-A hope for greening of Ladakh
-Planting tips for a forester
-Plant diversity of Ladakh
-Medicinal & aromatic wealth of Indian cold desert (Ladakh & Lahaul-Spiti)
-Techniques for Cucurbits cultivation in cold desert: Ladakh
-Cultural tips for growing vegetables in Ladakh
-Quail rearing in Ladakh
-Tips for broiler production in Ladakh
-Fodder plants of Ladakh
-Alfalfa production in Ladakh
-Propagation techniques in apricot
-Introducing Lilium in Ladakh
-Solar greenhouse technology for vegetable production in high altitude cold arid regions
-Poster on annual flowers for identification and agrotechniqes.

Research Papers
Over 135 research papers on various aspects of cold arid agro-animal technology.